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電力變壓器的故障和保護措施

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電力變壓器的故障和保護措施

發布日期:2017-08-11 作者:江蘇鶴都電器有限公司 點擊:

 變壓器故障可分為內部故障和外部故障兩種。變壓器內部故障系指變壓器油箱里面發生的各種故障,其主要類型有:各相繞組之間發生的相間短路,單相繞組部分線匝之間發生的匝間短路,單相繞組或引出線通過外殼發生的單相接地故障等。變壓器外部故障系變壓器油箱外部絕緣套管及其引出線上發生的各種故障,其主要類型有:絕緣套管閃絡或破碎而發生的單相接(通過外殼)短路,引出線之間發生的相間故障等。變壓器的不正常工作狀態主要包括:由于外部短路或過負荷引起的過電流、油箱漏油造成的油面降低、變壓器中性點電壓升高、由于外加電壓過高或頻率降低引起的過勵磁等。


  為了防止變壓器在發生各種類型故障和不正常運行時造成不應有的損失,保證電力系統安全連續運行,變壓器一般應裝設以下繼電保護裝置。


  (1)防御變壓器油箱內部各種短路故障和油面降低的瓦斯保護。


  (2)防御變壓器繞組和引出線多相短路、大電流接地系統側繞組和引出線的單相接地短路及繞組匝間短路的(縱聯)差動保護或電流速斷保護。


  (3)防御變壓器外部相間短路并作為瓦斯保護和差動保護(或復合電壓起動的過電流保護、或負序過電流保護)。


  (4)防御大電流接地系統中變壓器外部接地短路的零序電流保護。


  (5)防御變壓器對稱過負荷的過負荷保護。


  (6)防御變壓器過勵磁的過勵磁保護。


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